2018 and in press

146. Fletcher L, Cui H, Callahan H, Scoffoni C, John G, Bartlett M, Burge D, Sack L. 2018. Evolution of leaf structure and drought tolerance in species of Californian Ceanothus. American Journal of Botany, in press.

145. Ibanez T, Keppel G, Baider C, Birkinshaw C, Culmsee H, Cordell S, Florens V, Franklin J, Giardina C, Gillespie T, Laidlaw M, Litton C, Martin T, Ostertag R, Parthasarathy N, Randrianaivo R, Randrianjanahary M, Rajkumar M, Rasingam L, Ratovoson F, Reza L, Sack L, Aiba S, Webb E, Whitfeld T, Zang R, Birnbaum P. 2018. Regional forcing explains local species diversity and turnover on tropical islands. Global Ecology and Biogeography, in press.

144. John GP, Henry C, Sack L. 2018. Leaf rehydration capacity: associations with other indices of drought tolerance and environment. Plant, Cell & Environment, in press.

143. Johnson DJ, Needham J, Xu C, Massoud EC, Davies SJ, Anderson-Teizeira KJ, Bunyavejchewin S, Chambers JQ, Chang-Yang CH, Chiang JM, Chuyong GB, Ondit R, Cordell S, Fletcher C, Giardina CP, Giambelluca TW, Gunatilleke N, Gunatilleke S, Sieh CF, Hubbell S, Inman-Narahari F, Kassim AR, Katabuchi M, Kenfack D, Litton CM, Lum S, Mohamad M, Musalmah N, Ong PS, Ostertag R, Sack L, Swenson NG, Umana MN, Uriarte M, Valencia R, Yap S, Zimmerman JK, McDowell NG, McMahon SM. 2018. Climate sensitive size-dependent survival in tropical trees. Nature Ecology and Evolution, in press.

142. LaManna JA, Mangan, SA, Alonso A, Bourg NA, Brockelman WY, Bunyavejchewin S, Chang L-W, Chiang J-M,  Chuyong GB, Clay K, Condit R, Cordell S, Davies SJ, Furniss TJ, Giardina CP, Gunatilleke IAUN, Gunatilleke CVS, He F, Howe RW, Hubbell SP, Hsieh C-F, Inman-Narahari FM, Janík D, Johnson DJ, Kenfack D, Korte L, Král K, Larson AJ, Lutz JA, McMahon SM, McShea WJ, Memiaghe HR, Nathalang A, Novotny V, Ong PS, Orwig DA, Ostertag R, Parker GG, Phillips RP, Sack L, Sun I-F, Tello JS, Thomas DW, Turner BL, Vela Díaz DM, Vrška T, Weiblen GD, Wolf A, Yap S, Myers JA. 2018. Response to Comment on “Plant diversity increases with the strength of negative density dependence at the global scale”. Science 360: eaar3824

141. LaManna JA, Mangan, SA, Alonso A, Bourg NA, Brockelman WY, Bunyavejchewin S, Chang L-W, Chiang J-M,  Chuyong GB, Clay K, Condit R, Cordell S, Davies SJ, Furniss TJ, Giardina CP, Gunatilleke IAUN, Gunatilleke CVS, He F, Howe RW, Hubbell SP, Hsieh C-F, Inman-Narahari FM, Janík D, Johnson DJ, Kenfack D, Korte L, Král K, Larson AJ, Lutz JA, McMahon SM, McShea WJ, Memiaghe HR, Nathalang A, Novotny V, Ong PS, Orwig DA, Ostertag R, Parker GG, Phillips RP, Sack L, Sun I-F, Tello JS, Thomas DW, Turner BL, Vela Díaz DM, Vrška T, Weiblen GD, Wolf A, Yap S, Myers JA. 2018. Response to Comment on “Plant diversity increases with the strength of negative density dependence at the global scale”. Science 360: eaar5245 

140. Li Y, Liu C, Zhang J, Yang H, Wang Q, Sack L, Wu X, Hou J, He N. 2018. Variation in leaf chlorophyll concentration from tropical to cold-temperate forests: association with gross primary productivity. Ecological Indicators 85, 383-389.  pdf  Supplementary Data

139. Liu C, He N, Zhang J, Li Y, Wang Q, Sack L, Yu G. 2018. Variation of stomatal traits from cold-temperate to tropical forests and association with water use efficiency. Functional Ecology 32, 20-28. pdf  Supporting Information

138. Lutz JA, Furniss TJ, Johnson DJ, Davies SJ, Allen D, Alonso A, Anderson-Teixeira K, Baltzer J, Becker KML, Blomdahl EM, Bourg NA, Bunyavejchewin S, Burslem DFRP, Cansler CA, Cao K, Cao M, Cárdenas D, Chang L-W, Chao K-J, Chao W-C, Chiang J-M, Chu C, Chuyong GB, Clay K, Condit R, Cordell S, Dattaraja HS, Duque A, Escobar D, Ewango CEN, Fisher GA, Fletcher C, Fruend JA, Giardina C, Germain SJ, Gilbert GS, Hau BCH, Hao Z, Hart T, He F, Hector A, Howe RW, Hu Y-H, Hubbell SP, Hsieh C-F, Inman-Narahari FM, Itoh A, Janik D, Kassim AR, Kenfack D, Kortee L, Král K, Larson AJ, Li Y-D, Lin Y, Liu S, Lum S, Ma K, Malhi Y, Makana J-R, McMahon SM, McShea WJ, Memiaghe HR, Mi, Morecroft M, Musili PM, Myers JA, Novotny V, de Oliveira A, Ong P, Orwig DA, Osterag R, Parker GG, Patankar R, Phillips RP, Reynolds G, Sack L, Song G-ZM, Sukumar R, Suresh HS, Su S-H, Sun I-F, Swanson ME, Tan S, Thomas DW, Thompson J, Uriarte M, Valencia R, Vicentine A, Vrška T, Wang X, Weiblen GD, Wolf A, Wu S-H, Xu H,  Yamakura T, Yap S, Zimmerman JK. 2018. Global importance of large-diameter trees. Global Ecology and Biogeography, in press.

137. Ohtsuka A, Sack L, Taneda H. 2018. Bundle sheath lignification mediates the linkage of leaf hydraulics and venation. Plant, Cell & Environment 41,342-353. pdf  Supporting Information

136. Sack L, John GP, Buckley TN. 2018. ABA accumulation in dehydrating leaves is associated with decline in cell volume, not turgor pressure. Plant Physiology 176, 490-495. pdf  Supplemental Data

135. Yang Y, Morden CW, Sporck-Koehler MJ, Sack L, Berry PE. 2018. Repeated range expansion and niche shift in a volcanic hotspot archipelago: radiation of C4 Hawaiian Euphorbia (subgenus Chamaesyce, Euphorbiaceae). Ecology and Evolution, in press.

134. Zhang Y-J, Sack L, Goldstein G, Cao K-F. 2018. Hydraulic determination of leaf nutrient concentrations in cycads. Memoirs of The New York Botanical Garden, in press.


Science: 357 (6354)

133. Butler EE, Datta A, Flores-Moreno H, Chen M, Wythers KR, Fzayeli F, Banerjee A, Atkin OK, Kattge J, Amiaud B, Blonder B, Boenisch G, Bond-Lamberty B, Brown KA, Byun C, Campetella G, Cerabolini BEL, Cornelissen JHC, Craine JM, Craven D, de Vries FT, Díaz S, Domingues T, Forey E, Gonzalez A, Gross N, Han W, Hattingh WN, Hickler T, Jansen S, Kramer K, Kraft NJB, Kurokawa H, Laughlin DC, Meir P, Minden V, Niinemets Ü, Onoda Y, Peñuelas J, Read Q, Valladares Ros F, Sack L, Schamp B, Soudzilovskaia NA, Spasojevic MJ, Sosinski E, Thornton P, van Bodegom PM, Williams M, Wirth C, Reich PB. 2017. Mapping local and global variability in plant trait distributions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA

132. Buckley TN, John GP, Scoffoni C, Sack L. 2017. The sites of evaporation within leaves. Plant Physiology 173, 1763-1782. pdf  Supplemental Data

131. Buckley TN, Sack L, Farquhar GD. 2017. Optimal plant water economy. Plant, Cell & Environment 40, 881-896. pdf   Supporting Information

130. John G, Scoffoni C, Buckley TN, Villar R, Poorter H, Sack L. 2017. The anatomical and compositional basis of leaf mass per area. Ecology Letters 20, 412-425. pdf  Supporting Information

129. LaManna JA, Mangan, SA, Alonso A, Bourg NA, Brockelman WY, Bunyavejchewin S, Chang L-W, Chiang J-M,  Chuyong GB, Clay K, Condit R, Cordell S, Davies SJ, Furniss TJ, Giardina CP, Gunatilleke IAUN, Gunatilleke CVS, He F, Howe RW, Hubbell SP, Hsieh C-F, Inman-Narahari FM, Janík D, Johnson DJ, Kenfack D, Korte L, Král K, Larson AJ, Lutz JA, McMahon SM, McShea WJ, Memiaghe HR, Nathalang A, Novotny V, Ong PS, Orwig DA, Ostertag R, Parker GG, Phillips RP, Sack L, Sun I-F, Tello JS, Thomas DW, Turner BL, Vela Díaz DM, Vrška T, Weiblen GD, Wolf A, Yap S, Myers JA. 2017. Plant diversity increases with the strength of negative density dependence at the global scale. Science 356, 1389-1392. pdf  Supplementary Materials

  • Commentary by Liza Comita. 2017. How latitude affects biotic interactions. Science 356, 1328-1329. pdf

128. Maréchaux I, Bartlett MK, Iribar A, Sack L, Chave J. 2017. Stronger seasonal adjustment in leaf turgor loss point in lianas than trees in an Amazonian forest. Biology Letters 13, 20160819. pdf

127. Nguyen HT, Meir P, Sack L, Evans JR, Oliveira R, Ball M. 2017. Leaf water storage increases with salinity and aridity in the mangrove Avicennia marina: integration of leaf structure, osmotic adjustment, and access to multiple water sources. Plant, Cell & Environment 40, 1576-1591. pdf 

126. Scoffoni C, Albuquerque C, Brodersen C, Townes S*, John G, Bartlett MK, Buckley TN, McElrone AJ, Sack L. 2017. Outside-xylem vulnerability, not xylem embolism, controls leaf hydraulic decline during dehydration. Plant Physiology 173, 1197-1210. pdf  Supplemental Data

125. Scoffoni C, Albuquerque C, Brodersen C, Townes S*, John G, Cochard H, Buckley TN, McElrone AJ, Sack L. 2017. Leaf vein xylem conduit diameter influences susceptibility to embolism and hydraulic decline. New Phytologist 213, 1076-1092. pdf  Supporting Information

124. Scoffoni C, John GP, Cochard H, Sack L. 2017. Testing for ion-mediated enhancement of the hydraulic conductance of the leaf xylem in diverse angiosperms. Journal of Plant Hydraulics 4, e004. pdf  Supporting Information

123. Scoffoni C, Sack L. 2017. Darwin Review: The causes and consequences of leaf hydraulic decline with dehydration. Journal of Experimental Botany 68, 4479-4496. pdf  Supplementary Data

122. Shipley B, Belluau M, Kühn I, Soudzilovskaia N, Bahn M, Peñuelas J, Kattge J, Sack L, Cavender-Bares J, Ozinga WA, Blonder B, van Bodegom PM, Manning P, Hickler T, Sosinski E, De Patta Pillar V, Alegre P, Onipchenko V. 2017. Predicting habitat affinities of plant species using commonly measured functional traits. Journal of Vegetation Science 28, 1082-1095. pdf  Supporting Information

121. Wright IJ, Dong N, Maire V, Prentice IC, Westoby M, Diaz S, Gallagher RV, Jacobs BF, Kooyman R, Law EA, Leishman MR, Niinemets Ü, Reich PB, Sack L, Villar R, Wang H, Wilf P. 2017. Global climatic drivers of leaf size. Science 357, 917-921. pdf  Supplementary Materials

  • Recommendation in Nature. pdf

120. Zhang Y-J, Sack L, Cao K-F. 2017, Wei X-M, Li N. 2017. Speed versus endurance tradeoff in plants: leaves with higher photosynthetic rates show stronger seasonal declines. Scientific Reports 7, 42085. pdf  Supplementary Information


119. Anderegg WRL, Klein T, Bartlett M, Sack L, Pellegrini A, Choat B, Jansen S. 2016. Meta-analysis reveals that hydraulic traits explain cross-species patterns of drought-induced tree mortality across the globe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 113, 5024-5029. pdf

  • Recommendation by Bernhard Schmid and Michael O’Brien, 2016. Faculty of 1000. pdf

118. Bartlett MK, Klein T, Jansen S, Choat B, Sack L. 2016. The correlations and sequence of plant stomatal, hydraulic, and wilting responses to drought. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 113, 13098-13103. pdf   Supporting Information

  • Commentary by Alastair Brown. 2016. Plant physiology: responses to drought. Nature Climate Change 6, 1060. pdf

117. Bartlett MK, Zhang Y, Yang J, Kriedler N*, Sun S-W, Lin L, Hu Y-H, Cao K-F, Sack L. 2016. Drought tolerance as a driver of tropical forest assembly: resolving spatial signatures for multiple processes. Ecology 97, 503-514. pdf   Supporting Information

116. Chu C, Bartlett M, Wang Y, He F, Weiner J, Chave J, Sack L. 2016. Does climate directly influence NPP globally? Global Change Biology 22, 12-24. pdf   Supporting Information

115. Inman-Narahari F, Ostertag R, Hubbell S, Giardina C, Cordell S, Sack L. 2016. Density-dependent seedling mortality varies with light availability and species abundance in wet and dry Hawaiian forests. Journal of Ecology 104, 773-780. pdf  Supporting Information

114. Maréchaux I, Bartlett MK, Gaucher P, Sack L, Chave J. 2016. Causes of variation in leaf-level drought tolerance within an Amazonian forest. Journal of Plant Hydraulics. pdf    Supplemental Data

113. McKown AD, Akamine ME, Sack L. 2016. Trait convergence and diversification arising from a complex evolutionary history in Hawaiian species of Scaevola. Oecologia 181, 1083-1100. pdf  Supporting Information

112. Méndez-Alonzo R, López-Portillo J, Moctezuma C, Bartlett MK, Sack L. 2016. Osmotic and hydraulic adjustment of mangrove saplings to extreme salinity. Tree Physiology, 36, 1562-1572. pdf  Supplementary Data

111. Sack L, Ball MC, Brodersen C, Davis SD, Des Marais DL, Donovan LA, Givnish TJ, Hacke UG, Huxman T, Jansen S, Jacobsen AL, Johnson D, Koch GW, Maurel C, McCulloh K, McDowell NG, McElrone A, Meinzer FC, Melcher PJ, North G, Pellegrini M, Pockman WT, Pratt RB, Sala A, Santiago LS, Savage JA, Scoffoni C, Sevanto S, Sperry J, Tyerman SD, Way D, Holbrook NM. 2016. Plant hydraulics as a hub integrating plant and ecosystem function. Plant, Cell & Environment 39, 2085-2094. pdf

110. Sack L, Buckley TN. 2016. The developmental basis of stomatal density and flux. Plant Physiology 171, 2358-2363. pdf  Supplemental Data

109. Sack L, Buckley TN, Scoffoni C. 2016. Why are leaves hydraulically vulnerable? Journal of Experimental Botany 67, 4917-4949. pdf

  • Comment by Jonathan Ingram. 2016. Leaf hydraulic conductance shifts our understanding of plant water transport. Society of Experimental Biology News. link pdf

108. Scoffoni C, Chatelet DS, Pasquet-Kok J, Rawls M*, Donoghue MJ, Edwards EJ, Sack L. 2016. Hydraulic basis for the evolution of photosynthetic productivity. Nature Plants 16072. pdf  Supplementary Information


107. Anderson-Teixeira KJ, Davies SJ, Bennett AC, Gonzalez-Akrea EB, Muller-Landau HC, Wright SJ, Abu Salim K, Almeyda Zambrano AM, Alonso A, Baltzer JL, Basset Y, Bourg NA, Broadbent EN, Brockelman WY Bunyavejchewin S, Burslem DFRP, Butt N, Cao M, Cardenas D, Chuyong GB, Clay K, Cordell S, Dattaraja HS, Deng X, Detto M, Du X, Duque A, Erikson DL, Ewango CEN, Fischer GA, Fletcher C, Foster RB, Giardina CP, Gilbert GS, Gunatilleke N, Gunatilleke S, Hao Z, Hargrove WW, Hart TB Hau, BCH, He F, Hoffman FM, Howe RW, Hubbell SP, Inman-Narahari FM, Jansen PA, Jiang M, Johnson DJ, Kanzaki M, Kassim AR, Kenfack D, Kibet S, Kinnaird MF, Korte L, Kral K, Kumar J, Larson AJ, Li Y, Li X, Liu S, Lum SKY, Lutz JA, Ma K, Maddalena DM, Makana J-R, Malhi Y, Marthews T, Mat Serudin R, McMahon SM, McShea WJ, Memiaghe HR, Mi X, Mizono T, Morecroft M, Myers JA, Novotny V, de Oliveira AA, Ong PS, Orwig DA, Ostertag R, den Ouden J, Parker GG, Phillips RP, Sack L, Sainge MN, Sang W, Sri Ngernyuang K, Sukumar R, Sun, I-F, Sungpalee W, Suresh HS, Tan S, Thomas SC, Thomas DW, Thompson J, Turner BL, Uriarte M, Valencia R, Vallejo MI, Vicentini A, Vrska T, Wang X, Wang X, Weiblen G, Wolf A, Xu H, Yap S, Zimmerman J. 2015. CTFS-ForestGeo: a worldwide network monitoring forests in an era of global change. Global Change Biology, 21, 528-549. pdf   Supporting Information

106. Buckley TN, John GP, Scoffoni C, Sack L. 2015. How does leaf anatomy influence water transport outside the xylem? Plant Physiology 168, 1616-1635. pdf

  • Commentary by Timothy J. Brodribb. 2015. Bringing anatomy back into the equation. Plant Physiology 168, 1461. pdf

105. Caringella MA, Bongers FJ, Sack L. 2015. Leaf hydraulic conductance varies with vein anatomy across Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type and leaf vein mutants. Plant, Cell & Environment 38, 2735-2746. pdf   Supporting Information

104. Grubb PJ, Marañón T, Pugnaire FI, Sack L. 2015. Relationships between specific leaf area and leaf composition in succulent and non-succulent species of contrasting semi-desert communities in south-eastern Spain. Journal of Arid Environments 118, 69-83. pdf   Supporting Information

103. Maréchaux I, Bartlett M, Sack L, Baraloto C, Engel J, Joetzjer E, Chave J. 2015. Drought tolerance as predicted by leaf water potential at turgor loss point varies strongly across species within an Amazonian forest. Functional Ecology 29, 1268-1277. pdf    Supporting Information

102. Merkhofer L, Wilf P, Haas MT, Kooyman RM, Sack L, Scoffoni C, Cuneo NR. 2015. Resolving Australian analogs for an Eocene Patagonian paleorainforest using leaf size and floristics. American Journal of Botany 102, 1160-1173. pdf   Supporting Information

101. Poorter H, Jagodziński A, Ruíz-Peinado R, Kuyah S, Luo Y, Oleksyn J, Usoltsev V, Buckley T, Reich PB, Sack L. 2015 How does biomass allocation change with size and differ among species? An analysis for 1200 plant species from five continents. New Phytologist 208, 736-749. pdf   Supporting Information

100. Sack L, Scoffoni C, Johnson DM, Buckley TN, Brodribb TJ. 2015. The anatomical determinants of leaf hydraulic function. in Functional and Ecological Xylem Anatomy, pp. 255-271. ed. UG Hacke. Springer, New York. pdf

99. Scoffoni C, Kunkle J, Pasquet-Kok J, Vuong C*, Patel A*, Montgomery R, Givnish TJ, Sack L. 2015. Light-induced plasticity in leaf hydraulics, venation, anatomy and gas exchange in ecologically diverse Hawaiian lobeliads. New Phytologist 207, 43-58. pdf Supporting Information

98. Scoffoni C, Sack L. 2015. Are leaves “freewheelin'”? Testing for a Wheeler-type effect in leaf xylem hydraulic decline. Plant, Cell & Environment 38, 534-543. pdf  Supporting Information

97. Zhang Y-J, Cao K-F, Sack L, Li N, Wei X-M, Goldstein G. 2015. Extending the generality of leaf economic design principles in the cycads, an ancient lineage. New Phytologist 206, 817-829. pdf  Supporting Information


96. Bartlett M, Zhang Y, Kreidler N*, Sun S, Ardy R*, Cao K-F, Sack L. 2014. Global analysis of plasticity in turgor loss point, a key drought tolerance trait. Ecology Letters 12, 1580-1590. pdf  Supporting Information

95. Cavaleri MA, Ostertag R, Cordell S, Sack L. 2014. Native trees show conservative water use relative to invasive: results from a removal experiment in a Hawaiian wet forest. Conservation Physiology 2, cou016. pdf

94. Creese C, Oberbauer S, Rundel P, Sack L. 2014. Are fern stomatal responses to different stimuli coordinated? Testing responses to light, vapor pressure deficit and CO2 for diverse species grown under contrasting irradiances. New Phytologist 204, 92-104. pdf   Supporting Information

93. Edwards E, Chatelet D, Garrison L, Sack L, Donoghue MJ. 2014. Leaf lifespan and the leaf economic spectrum in the context of whole plant architecture. Journal of Ecology 102, 328-336. pdf

92. Granda E, Scoffoni C, Rubio-Casal AE, Sack L, Valladares F. 2014. Leaf and stem physiological responses to summer and winter extremes of woody species across temperate ecosystems. Oikos 123, 1281-1290. pdf   Appendix

  • Editor’s Choice, Oikos. link

91. Inman-Narahari F, Ostertag R, Asner GP, Cordell S, Hubbell SP, Sack L. 2014. Trade-offs in seedling growth and survival within and across tropical forest microhabitats. Ecology and Evolution, doi: 10.1002/ece3.1196. pdf   Supporting Information

90. Moles AT, Perkins SE, Laffan SW, Flores-Moreno H, Awasthy M, Tindall ML, Sack L, Pitman A, Kattge J, Aarssen LW, Anand M, Bahn M, and 36 others. 2014. Which is a better predictor of plant traits: temperature or precipitation? Journal of Vegetation Science 25, 1167-1180. pdf

89. Ostertag R, Inman-Narahari F, Cordell S, Giardina CP, Sack L. 2014. Forest structure in low-diversity tropical forests: a study of Hawaiian wet and dry forests. PLoS ONE 9: e103268. pdf

88. Pivovaroff AL, Santiago LS, Sack L. 2014. Coordination of stem and leaf hydraulic conductance in southern California shrubs: a test of the hydraulic segmentation hypothesis. New Phytologist 203: 842-850. pdf

87. Pivovaroff A*, Sharifi R, Scoffoni C, Sack L, Rundel P. 2014. Making the best of the worst of times: traits underlying the combined shade and drought tolerance of Ruscus aculeatus and R. microglossum (Asparagaceae). Functional Plant Biology 41, 11-24. pdf

86. Sack L, Caringella M, Scoffoni C, Mason C, Rawls M*, Markesteijn L, Poorter L. 2014. Leaf vein length per unit area is not intrinsically dependent on image magnification: avoiding measurement artifacts for accuracy and precision. Plant Physiology 166, 829-838. pdf   Supplemental Data

85. Sack L, Scoffoni C, John GP, Poorter H, Mason CM, Mendez-Alonzo R, Donovan LA. 2014. Leaf mass per area is independent of vein length per area: avoiding pitfalls when modeling phenotypic integration (reply to Blonder, Violle, Bentley and Enquist, 2014). Journal of Experimental Botany 65, 5115-5123. pdf

84. Scoffoni C, Vuong C*, Diep S*, Cochard H, Sack L. 2014. Leaf shrinkage with dehydration: coordination with hydraulic vulnerability and drought tolerance. Plant Physiology 164, 1772-1788. pdf   Supplemental Data


83. Chatelet DS, Clement WL, Sack L, Donoghue MJ, Edwards EJ. 2013. The evolution of photosynthetic anatomy in Viburnum (Adoxaceae). International Journal of Plant Sciences 174, 1277-1291. pdf   Supplements

82. Cooke SJ, Sack L, Franklin CE, Farrell AP, Beardall J, Wikelski M, Chown SL. 2013. What is conservation physiology? perspectives on an increasingly integrated and essential science. Conservation Physiology 1, 1. pdf

81. Flexas J, Scoffoni C, Gago J, Sack L. 2013. Leaf mesophyll conductance and leaf hydraulic conductance: an introduction to their measurement and coordination. Journal of Experimental Botany 64: 3965-3981. pdf   Supplementary Data

80. Funk JL, Glenwinkel LA*, Sack L. 2013. Differential allocation to photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic nitrogen fractions among native and invasive species. PLoS ONE 8, e64502. pdf

79. Hao G, Wang A-Y, Sack L, Goldstein G, Cao K-F. 2013. Is hemiepiphytism an adaptation to high irradiance? Testing seedling responses to light levels and drought in hemiepiphytic and non-hemiepiphytic Ficus. Physiologia Plantarum 148, 74-86. pdf

78. Inman-Narahari F, Ostertag R, Cordell S, Giardina CP, Nelson-Kaula K*, Sack L. 2013. Seedling recruitment factors in low diversity Hawaiian wet forest: towards global comparisons among tropical forests. Ecosphere 4, 24. pdf

77. John GP, Scoffoni C, Sack L. 2013. Allometry of cells and tissues within leaves. American Journal of Botany 100: 1936-1948. pdf   Supplementary Data

76. Li, S, Zhang Y-J, Sack L, Scoffoni C, Ishida A, Chen Y-J, Cao K-F. 2013. The heterogeneity and spatial patterning of structure and physiology across the leaf surface in giant leaves of Alocasia macrorriza. PLoS ONE 8, e66016. pdf

75. Locke AM, Sack L, Bernacchi CJ, Ort DR. 2013. Soybean leaf hydraulic conductance does not acclimate to growth at elevated [CO2] or temperature in growth chambers or in the field. Annals of Botany 112: 911-918. pdf    Supplementary Data

74. Mendez-Alonzo R, Ewers F, Sack L. 2013. Ecological variation in leaf biomechanics and its scaling with tissue structure across three mediterranean-climate plant communities. Functional Ecology 27, 544-554. pdf   Supporting Information

73. Pérez-Harguindeguy N, Díaz S, Garnier E, Lavorel S, Poorter H, Jaureguiberry P, Bret-Harte MS, Cornwell WK, Craine JM, Gurvich DE, Urcelay C, Veneklaas EJ, Reich PB, Poorter L, Wright IJ, Ray P, Enrico L, Pausas JG, de Vos AC, Buchmann N, Funes G, Quétier F, Hodgson JG, Thompson K, Morgan HD, ter Steege H, van der Heijden MGA, Sack L, Blonder B, Poschlod P, Vaieretti MV, Conti G, Stager AC, Aquino S, Cornelissen JHC. 2013. New handbook for standardised measurement of plant functional traits worldwide. Australian Journal of Botany 61, 167-234. pdf   Supplementary Material

72. Sack L. 2013. Holding a leaf up to the light. Review of ‘The Life of a Leaf‘ by S. Vogel. BioScience 63, 981-982. pdf

71. Sack L, Scoffoni C. 2013. Tansley Review: Leaf venation: structure, function, development, evolution, ecology and applications in past, present and future. New Phytologist 198, 983-1000. pdf   Supporting Information

70. Sack L, Scoffoni C, John GP, Poorter H, Mason CM, Mendez-Alonzo R, Donovan LA. 2013. How do leaf veins influence the worldwide leaf economic spectrum? Review and synthesis. Journal of Experimental Botany 64: 4053-4080. pdf   Supplementary Data


69. Bartlett M, Scoffoni C, Sack L. 2012. The determinants of leaf turgor loss point and prediction of drought tolerance of species and biomes: a global meta-analysis. Ecology Letters 15, 393-405. pdf   Supporting Information

68. Bartlett M, Scoffoni C, Ardy R*, Zhang Y, Sun S, Cao K, Sack L. 2012. Rapid determination of comparative drought tolerance traits: using an osmometer to predict turgor loss point. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 3, 880-888. pdf   Supporting Information

67. Guyot G, Scoffoni C, Sack L. 2012. Combined impacts of irradiance and dehydration on leaf hydraulic conductance: insights into vulnerability and stomatal control. Plant, Cell & Environment 35, 857-871. pdf

66. Melcher PJ, Holbrook NM, Burns MJ, Zwieniecki MA, Cobb AR, Brodribb TJ, Choat B, Sack L. 2012. Measurement of stem xylem hydraulic conductivity in the laboratory and field. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 3, 685-694. pdf   Supporting Information

65. Osborne CP, Sack L. 2012. Evolution of C4 plants: a new hypothesis for an interaction of CO2 and water relations mediated by plant hydraulics. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 367, 583-600. pdf   Data Supplement

64. Poorter H, Sack L. 2012. Pitfalls and possibilities in the analysis of biomass allocation patterns in plants. Frontiers in Plant Science 3, 259. pdf   Supplementary Material

63. Sack L, Scoffoni C. 2012. Measurement of leaf hydraulic conductance and stomatal conductance and their responses to irradiance and dehydration using the evaporative flux method (EFM). Journal of Visualized Experiments. pdf   Movie

62. Sack L, Scoffoni C, McKown AD, Frole K*, Rawls M*, Havran JC, Tran H*, Tran T*. 2012. Developmentally based scaling of leaf venation architecture explains global ecological patterns. Nature Communications 3: 837. pdf   Supporting Information

61. Schmerler S*, Clement WL, Beaulieu JM, Chatelet D, Sack L, Donoghue MJ, Edwards EJ. 2012. Evolution of leaf form correlates with tropical-temperate transitions in Viburnum (Adoxaceae). Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 279, 3905-3913. pdf   Data Supplement

60. Scoffoni C, McKown A, Rawls M*, Sack L. 2012. Dynamics of leaf hydraulic conductance with water status: quantification and analysis of species differences under steady-state. Journal of Experimental Botany 63, 643-658. pdf   Supplementary Data

59. Sommerville KE, Sack L, Ball MC. 2012. Hydraulic conductance of Acacia phyllodes (leaves) is driven by primary nerve (vein) conductance and density. Plant, Cell & Environment 35, 158-168. pdf   Supporting Information


58. Buckley TN, Sack L, Gilbert ME. 2011. The role of bundle sheath extensions and life form in stomatal responses to leaf water status. Plant Physiology 156, 962-973. pdf   Supplemental Data

57. Choat B, Medek DE, Stuart SA, Pasquet-Kok J, Egerton JJG, Salari H, Sack L, Ball MC. 2011. Xylem traits mediate a trade-off between resistance to freeze/thaw-induced embolism and photosynthetic capacity in over-wintering evergreens. New Phytologist 191, 996-1005. pdf

56. Creese C, Lee A*, Sack L. 2011. Drivers of morphological diversity and distribution in the Hawaiian fern flora: trait associations with size, growth form and environment. American Journal of Botany 98, 956-966. pdf   Supplementary Data

55. Gaoue O, Sack L, Ticktin T. 2011. Human impacts on leaf economics in heterogeneous landscapes: the effect of harvesting non-timber forest products from African mahogany across habitats and climates. Journal of Applied Ecology 48, 844-852. pdf   Supporting Information

54. Hao G-Y, Goldstein G, Sack L, Holbrook NM, Liu Z-H, Wang A-Y, Harrison RD, Su Z-H, Cao K-F. 2011. Ecology of hemi-epiphytism in fig species is based on evolutionary correlation of hydraulics and carbon economy. Ecology 92, 2117-2130. pdf   Appendices online

53. Kattge J, Díaz S, Lavorel S, Prentice IC, Leadley P, Bönisch G, Garnier E, Westoby M, Reich PB, Wright IJ, Cornelissen JHC, Violle C, Harrison SP, van Bodegom PM, Reichstein M, Enquist BJ, Soudzilovskaia NA, Ackerly DD, Anand M, Atkin O, Bahn M, Baker TR, Baldocchi D, Bekker R, Blanco CC, Blonder B, Bond W, Bradstock R, Bunker DE, Casanoves F, Cavender-Bares J, Chambers JQ, Chapin FS III, Chave J, Coomes D, Cornwell WK, Craine JM, Dobrin BH, Duarte L, Durka W, Elser J, Esser G, Estiarte M, Fagan WF, Fang J, Fernández-Méndez F, Fidelis A, Finegan B, Flores O, Ford H, Frank D, Freschet GT, Fyllas NM, Gallagher R, Green WA, Gutierrez AG, Hickler T, Higgins S, Hodgson JG, Jalili A, Jansen J, Joly C, Kerkhoff AJ, Kirkup D, Kitajima K, Kleyer M, Klotz S, Knops JMH, Kramer K, Kühn I, Kurokawa H, Laughlin D, Lee TD, Leishman M, Lens F, Lenz T, Lewis SL, Lloyd J, Llusià J, Louault F, Ma S, Mahecha MD, Manning P, Massad T, Medlyn B, Messier J, Moles A, Müller SC, Nadrowski K, Naeem S, Niinemets Ü, Nöllert S, Nüske A, Ogaya R, Oleksyn J, Onipchenko VG, Onoda Y, Ordoñez J, Overbeck G, Ozinga W, Patiño S, Paula S, Pausas JG, Peñuelas J, Phillips OL, Pillar V, Poorter H, Poorter L, Poschlod P, Prinzing A, Proulx R, Rammig A, Reinsch S, Reu B, Sack L, Salgado-Negret B, Sardans J, Shiodera S, Shipley B, Siefert A, Sosinski E, Sousssana J-F, Swaine E, Swenson N, Thompson K, Thornton P, Waldram M, Weiher E, White M, Wright SJ, Yguel B, Zaehle S, Zanne AE, Wirth C. 2011. TRY: a global database of plant traits. Global Change Biology 17, 2905-2935. pdf   Supporting Information

  • Recommendation by Kirk Moloney, 2012, Faculty of 1000. pdf

52. Markesteijn L, Poorter L, Paz H, Bongers F, Sack L. 2011. Hydraulics and life-history of tropical dry forest tree species: coordination of species’ drought and shade tolerance. New Phytologist 191, 480-495. pdf

51. Markesteijn L, Poorter L, Paz H, Sack L, Bongers F. 2011. Ecological differentiation in xylem cavitation resistance is associated with stem and leaf structural traits. Plant, Cell & Environment 34, 137-148. pdf

50. Scoffoni C, Rawls M*, McKown A, Cochard H, Sack L. 2011. Decline of leaf hydraulic conductance with dehydration: relationship to leaf size and venation architecture. Plant Physiology 156, 832-843. pdf   Supplemental Data

  • Recommendation by Joseph Craine, 2011, Faculty of 1000. pdf

49. Sellin A, Sack L, Õunapuu E, Karusion A. 2011. Impact of light quality on leaf and shoot hydraulic properties: a case study in silver birch (Betula pendula). Plant, Cell & Environment 34, 1079-1087. pdf

48. Waite M, Sack L. 2011. Does global stoichiometric theory apply to bryophytes? Tests across an elevation × soil age ecosystem matrix on Mauna Loa, Hawaii. Journal of Ecology 99, 122-134. pdf   Supporting Information

47. Waite M, Sack L. 2011. Shifts in bryophyte carbon isotope ratio across an elevation × soil age matrix on Mauna Loa, Hawaii: do bryophytes behave like vascular plants? Oecologia 166, 11-22. pdf   SupplementaryMaterial


46. Brodribb TJ, Feild TS, Sack L. 2010. Viewing leaf structure and evolution from a hydraulic perspective. Functional Plant Biology 37: 488-498. pdf

45. Cavaleri MA, Sack L. 2010. Comparative water use of native and invasive plants at multiple scales: a global meta-analysis. Ecology 91: 2705-2715. pdf   Appendices online

  • Recommendation by Mark Lonsdale and Hazel Ruth Parry, 2010, Faculty of 1000. pdf

44. Hao G-Y, Sack L, Wang A-Y, Cao K-F, Goldstein G. 2010. Differentiation of leaf water flux and drought tolerance traits in hemiepiphytic and non-hemiepiphytic Ficus tree species. Functional Ecology 24: 731-740. pdf   Supporting Information

43. Inman-Narahari F, Giardina C, Ostertag R, Cordell S, Sack L. 2010. Digital data collection in forest dynamics plots. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 1: 274-279. pdf   Supporting Information

42. McKown AD, Cochard H, Sack L. 2010. Decoding leaf hydraulics with a spatially explicit model: principles of venation architecture and implications for its evolution. American Naturalist 175: 447-460. pdf   Appendix

  • Commentary by David J. Beerling and Peter J. Franks. 2010. News & Views: The hidden cost of transpiration. Nature 464, 495-496. pdf

41. Pasquet-Kok J, Creese C, Sack L. 2010. Turning over a new “leaf”: multiple functional significances of leaves versus phyllodes in Hawaiian Acacia koa. Plant, Cell & Environment 33, 2084-2100. pdf   Supporting Information

40. Sack L, Cornwell WK, Santiago LS, Barbour MM, Choat B, Evans JR, Munns R, Nicotra A. 2010. A unique web resource for physiology, ecology and the environmental sciences: PrometheusWiki. Functional Plant Biology 387: 687-693. pdf   PrometheusWiki Website

  • Commentary by Rana Munns. 2010. Editorial: New ventures in scientific publication. Functional Plant Biology 37, 687-693. pdf

39. Waite M, Sack L. 2010. How does moss photosynthesis relate to leaf and canopy structure? Trait relationships for ten Hawaiian species of contrasting light habitats. New Phytologist 185: 156-172. pdf   Supplementary Material

  • Commentary by Michael Proctor. 2010. Trait correlations in bryophytes: exploring an alternative world. New Phytologist 185, 1-3. pdf


38. Coomes DA, Sack L. 2009. Response to “Comment on Coomes et al. 2008, ‘Scaling of xylem vessels and veins within the leaves of oak species’ by CA Price and BJ Enquist”. Biology Letters. pdf

37. Dunbar-Co S, Sporck MJ, Sack L. 2009. Leaf trait diversification and design in seven rare taxa of the Hawaiian Plantago radiation. International Journal of Plant Sciences 170: 61-75. pdf

36. Kagawa AK, Sack L, Duarte K, James S. 2009. Hawaiian native forest conserves water relative to timber plantation: species and stand traits influence water use. Ecological Applications 19: 1429-1443. pdf


35. Arcand N, Kagawa AK, Sack L, Giambelluca TW. 2008. Scaling of frond form in Hawaiian tree fern Cibotium glaucum: compliance with global trends, and application for field estimation. Biotropica 40, 686-691. pdf   Supporting Material

34. Coomes DA, Heathcote S*, Godfrey ER*, Shepherd JJ*, Sack L. 2008. Scaling of xylem vessels and veins within the leaves of oak species. Biology Letters 4, 302-306. pdf Supplementary Material

33. Hoof J, Sack L, Webb DT, Nilsen ET. 2008. Contrasting structure and function of pubescent and glabrous varieties of Hawaiian Metrosideros polymorpha at high elevation. Biotropica 40, 113-118. pdf

32. Pratt RB, Jacobsen AL, North GB, Sack L, Schenk HJ. 2008. Plant hydraulics: new discoveries in the pipeline. Meeting Report. New Phytologist 179, 590-593. pdf

31. Quero JL, Villar R, Marañón T, Zamora R, Vega D, Sack L. 2008. Relating leaf photosynthetic rate to whole plant growth: drought and shade effects on seedlings of four Quercus species. Functional Plant Biology 35,725-737. pdf   Supplementary Material

30. Sack L, Dietrich EM*, Streeter CM*, Sánchez-Gómez D, Holbrook NM. 2008. Leaf palmate venation and vascular redundancy confer tolerance of hydraulic disruption. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 105, 1567-1572. pdf   Supporting Information Online

  • Recommendation by Evan DeLucia, 2008, Faculty of 1000. pdf

29. Scoffoni C, Pou A, Aasamaa K, Sack L. 2008. The rapid light response of leaf hydraulic conductance: new evidence from two experimental methods. Plant, Cell & Environment 13, 1803-1812. pdf


28. Cavender-Bares J, Sack L, Savage J. 2007. Atmospheric and soil drought reduce nocturnal conductance in live oaks. Tree Physiology 27, 611-620. pdf

27. Choat B, Sack L, Holbrook NM. 2007. Diversity of hydraulic traits in nine Cordia species growing in tropical forests with contrasting precipitation. New Phytologist 175, 686-698. pdf

  • Recommendation by Peter Reich, 2008, Faculty of 1000. pdf

26. Cornwell WK, Bhaskar R, Sack L, Cordell S, Lunch C. 2007. Adjustment of structure and function of Hawaiian Metrosideros polymorpha at high versus low precipitation. Functional Ecology 21, 1063-1071. pdf

25. Martin RE, Asner GP, Sack L. 2007. Genetic variation in leaf pigment, optical and photosynthetic function among diverse phenotypes of Metrosideros polymorpha grown in a common garden. Oecologia 151, 387-400. pdf

24. Royer DL, Sack L, Wilf P, Lusk CH, Jordan GJ, Niinemets Ü, Wright IJ, Westoby M, Cariglino B, Coley PD, Cutter AD, Johnson KR, Labandeira CC, Moles AT, Palmer MB, Valladares F. 2007. Fossil leaf economics quantified: calibration, Eocene case study, and implications. Paleobiology 33, 574-589. pdf

  • Editor’s Choice, by Guy Riddihough. 2007. Science 318, 1219. pdf


23. Niinemets Ü, Sack L. 2006. Structural determinants of leaf light harvesting capacity and photosynthetic potentials. Progress in Botany, Vol 67. Springer Verlag, Berlin, 385-419. pdf

22. Sack L, Frole K*. 2006. Leaf structural diversity is related to hydraulic capacity in tropical rainforest trees. Ecology 87, 483-491. pdf   Appendices online

21. Sack L, Holbrook NM. 2006. Leaf hydraulics. Annual Review of Plant Biology 57, 361-381. pdf

20. Sack L, Melcher PJ, Liu WH*, Middleton E*, Pardee T*. 2006. How strong is intra-canopy leaf plasticity in temperate deciduous trees? American Journal of Botany 93, 829-839. pdf


19. Nakahashi C*, Frole K*, Sack L*. 2005. Bacterial leaf nodule symbiosis in Ardisia (Myrsinaceae): does it contribute to seedling growth capacity? Plant Biology 7, 495-500. pdf

18. Orians CM, Smith SDP*, Sack L. 2005. How are leaves plumbed inside a branch? Differences in leaf-to-leaf hydraulic sectoriality among six temperate tree species. Journal of Experimental Botany 56, 2267-2273. pdf

17. Sack L, Tyree MT, Holbrook NM. 2005. Leaf hydraulic architecture correlates with regeneration irradiance in tropical rainforest trees. New Phytologist 167, 403-413. pdf

16. Sack L,Tyree MT. 2005. Leaf hydraulics and its implications in plant structure and function. In Vascular Transport in Plants. eds NM Holbrook and MA Zwieniecki. Elsevier/Academic Press, Oxford, 93-114. pdf

15. Tyree MT, Nardini A, Salleo S, Sack L, El Omari B. 2005. The dependence of leaf hydraulic conductance on irradiance during HPFM measurements: any role for stomatal response? Journal of Experimental Botany 56, 737-744. pdf


14. Angeles G, Bond B, Boyer JS, Brodribb T, Brooks JR, Burns MJ, Cavender-Bares J, Clearwater M, Cochard H, Comstock J, Davis SD, Domec J-C, Donovan L, Ewers F, Gartner B, Hacke U, Hinckley T, Holbrook NM, Jones HG, Kavanagh K, Law B, López-Portillo J, Lovisolo C, Martin T, Martínez-Vilalta J, Mayr S, Meinzer FC, Melcher P, Mencuccini M, Mulkey S, Nardini A, Neufeld HS, Passioura J, Pockman WT, Pratt RB, Rambal S, Richter H, Sack L, Salleo S, Schubert A, Schulte P, Sparks JP, Sperry J, Teskey R, Tyree M. 2004. Letter: The cohesion-tension theory. New Phytologist 163, 451-452. pdf

13. Sack L. 2004. Responses of temperate woody seedlings to shade and drought: do trade-offs limit potential niche differentiation? Oikos 107, 110-127. pdf

12. Sack L, Streeter CM*, Holbrook NM. 2004. Hydraulic analysis of water flow through leaves of sugar maple and red oak. Plant Physiology 134, 1824-1833. pdf


11. Sack L, Cowan PD*, Holbrook NM. 2003. The major veins of mesomorphic leaves revisited: testing for conductive overload in Acer saccharum (Aceraceae) and Quercus rubra (Fagaceae). American Journal of Botany 90: 32-39. pdf

10. Sack L, Cowan PD*, Jaikumar NJ*, Holbrook NM. 2003. The ‘hydrology’ of leaves: coordination of structure and function in temperate woody species. Plant, Cell & Environment 26, 1343-1356. pdf

9. Sack L, Dechmann D. 2003. Design of paradise. Review of ‘A Magic Web’ by EG Leigh and C Ziegler. Nature 424, 132. pdf

8. Sack L, Grubb, PJ. 2003. Crossovers in seedling relative growth rates between low and high irradiance: analyses and ecological potential. Functional Ecology 17, 281-287. pdf

7. Sack L, Grubb PJ, Marañón T. 2003. The functional morphology of juvenile plants tolerant of strong summer drought in shaded forest understories in southern Spain. Plant Ecology 168, 139-163. pdf


6. Sack L, Grubb PJ. 2002. The combined impacts of deep shade and drought on the growth and biomass allocation of shade tolerant woody seedlings. Oecologia 131: 175-185. pdf

5. Sack L, Marañón T, Grubb, PJ. 2002. Global allocation rules for patterns of biomass partitioning. Science 296: 1923a. pdf

4. Sack L, Melcher PJ, Zwieniecki MA, Holbrook NM. 2002. The hydraulic conductance of the angiosperm leaf lamina: a comparison of three measurement methods. Journal of Experimental Botany 53: 2177-2184. pdf

3. Zwieniecki MA, Melcher PJ, Boyce CK, Sack L, Holbrook NM. 2002. The hydraulic architecture of the leaf venation in Laurus nobilis L. Plant, Cell & Environment 25: 1445-1450. pdf


2. Sack L, Grubb PJ. 2001. Why do species of woody seedlings change rank in relative growth rate between low and high irradiance? Functional Ecology 15: 145-154. pdf


1. Sack L*, Zeyl C, Bell G, Sharbel T, Reboud X, Bernhardt T, Koelewyn H. 1994. Isolation of four new strains of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlorophyta) from soil samples. Journal of Phycology 30, 770-773. pdf


*indicates undergraduate co-authors