2018 and in press

Butler EE, Datta A, Flores-Moreno H, Chen M, Wythers KR, Fzayeli F, Banerjee A, Atkin OK, Kattge J, Amiaud B, Blonder B, Boenisch G, Bond-Lamberty B, Brown KA, Byun C, Campetella G, Cerabolini BEL, Cornelissen JHC, Craine JM, Craven D, de Vries FT, Díaz S, Domingues T, Forey E, Gonzalez A, Gross N, Han W, Hattingh WN, Hickler T, Jansen S, Kramer K, Kraft NJB, Kurokawa H, Laughlin DC, Meir P, Minden V, Niinemets Ü, Onoda Y, Peñuelas J, Read Q, Valladares Ros F, Sack L, Schamp B, Soudzilovskaia NA, Spasojevic MJ, Sosinski E, Thornton P, van Bodegom PM, Williams M, Wirth C, Reich PB. 2017. Mapping local and global variability in plant trait distributions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, in press.

Ibanez T, Keppel G, Baider C, Birkinshaw C, Culmsee H, Cordell S, Florens V, Franklin J, Giardina C, Gillespie T, Laidlaw M, Litton C, Martin T, Ostertag R, Parthasarathy N, Randrianaivo R, Randrianjanahary M, Rajkumar M, Rasingam L, Ratovoson F, Reza L, Sack L, Aiba S, Webb E, Whitfeld T, Zang R, Birnbaum P. 2017. Regional forcing explains local species diversity and turnover on tropical islands. Global Ecology and Biogeography, in press.

Li Y, Liu C, Zhang J, Yang H, Wang Q, Sack L, Wu X, Hou J, He N. 2017. Variation in leaf chlorophyll concentration from tropical to cold-temperate forests: association with gross primary productivity. Ecological Indicators 85, 383-389.  pdf  Supplementary Data

Liu C, He N, Zhang J, Li Y, Wang Q, Sack L, Yu G. 2017. Variation of stomatal traits from cold-temperate to tropical forests and association with water use efficiency. Functional Ecology, in press.

Ohtsuka A, Sack L, Taneda H. 2017. Bundle sheath lignification mediates the linkage of leaf hydraulics and venation. Plant, Cell & Environment, in press.

Sack L, John GP, Buckley TN. 2017. ABA accumulation in dehydrating leaves is associated with decline in cell volume, not turgor pressure. Plant Physiology, in press.

Yang Y, Morden CW, Sporck-Koehler MJ, Sack L, Berry PE. 2017. Repeated range expansion and niche shift in a volcanic hotspot archipelago: radiation of C4 Hawaiian Euphorbia (subgenus Chamaesyce, Euphorbiaceae). Ecology and Evolution, in press.

Zhang Y-J, Sack L, Goldstein G, Cao K-F. 2017. Hydraulic determination of leaf nutrient concentrations in cycads. Memoirs of The New York Botanical Garden, in press.


Science: 357 (6354)

Buckley TN, John GP, Scoffoni C, Sack L. 2017. The sites of evaporation within leaves. Plant Physiology 173, 1763-1782. pdf  Supplemental Data

Buckley TN, Sack L, Farquhar GD. 2017. Optimal plant water economy. Plant, Cell & Environment 40, 881-896. pdf   Supporting Information

John G, Scoffoni C, Buckley TN, Villar R, Poorter H, Sack L. 2017. The anatomical and compositional basis of leaf mass per area. Ecology Letters 20, 412-425. pdf  Supporting Information

LaManna JA, Mangan, SA, Alonso A, Bourg NA, Brockelman WY, Bunyavejchewin S, Chang L-W, Chiang J-M,  Chuyong GB, Clay K, Condit R, Cordell S, Davies SJ, Furniss TJ, Giardina CP, Gunatilleke IAUN, Gunatilleke CVS, He F, Howe RW, Hubbell SP, Hsieh C-F, Inman-Narahari FM, Janík D, Johnson DJ, Kenfack D, Korte L, Král K, Larson AJ, Lutz JA, McMahon SM, McShea WJ, Memiaghe HR, Nathalang A, Novotny V, Ong PS, Orwig DA, Ostertag R, Parker GG, Phillips RP, Sack L, Sun I-F, Tello JS, Thomas DW, Turner BL, Vela Díaz DM, Vrška T, Weiblen GD, Wolf A, Yap S, Myers JA. 2017. Plant diversity increases with the strength of negative density dependence at the global scale. Science 356, 1389-1392. pdf  Supplementary Materials

Maréchaux I, Bartlett MK, Iribar A, Sack L, Chave J. 2017. Stronger seasonal adjustment in leaf turgor loss point in lianas than trees in an Amazonian forest. Biology Letters 13, 20160819. pdf

Nguyen HT, Meir P, Sack L, Evans JR, Oliveira R, Ball M. 2017. Leaf water storage increases with salinity and aridity in the mangrove Avicennia marina: integration of leaf structure, osmotic adjustment, and access to multiple water sources. Plant, Cell & Environment 40, 1576-1591. pdf 

Scoffoni C, Albuquerque C, Brodersen C, Townes S*, John G, Bartlett MK, Buckley TN, McElrone AJ, Sack L. 2017. Outside-xylem vulnerability, not xylem embolism, controls leaf hydraulic decline during dehydration. Plant Physiology 173, 1197-1210. pdf  Supplemental Data

Scoffoni C, Albuquerque C, Brodersen C, Townes S*, John G, Cochard H, Buckley TN, McElrone AJ, Sack L. 2017. Leaf vein xylem conduit diameter influences susceptibility to embolism and hydraulic decline. New Phytologist 213, 1076-1092. pdf  Supporting Information

Scoffoni C, John GP, Cochard H, Sack L. 2017. Testing for ion-mediated enhancement of the hydraulic conductance of the leaf xylem in diverse angiosperms. Journal of Plant Hydraulics, in press.

Scoffoni C, Sack L. 2017. Darwin Review: The causes and consequences of leaf hydraulic decline with dehydration. Journal of Experimental Botany 68, 4479-4496. pdf  Supplementary Data

Shipley B, Belluau M, Kühn I, Soudzilovskaia N, Bahn M, Peñuelas J, Kattge J, Sack L, Cavender-Bares J, Ozinga WA, Blonder B, van Bodegom PM, Manning P, Hickler T, Sosinski E, De Patta Pillar V, Alegre P, Onipchenko V. 2017. Predicting habitat affinities of plant species using commonly measured functional traits. Journal of Vegetation Science 28, 1082-1095. pdf  Supporting Information

Wright IJ, Dong N, Maire V, Prentice IC, Westoby M, Diaz S, Gallagher RV, Jacobs BF, Kooyman R, Law EA, Leishman MR, Niinemets Ü, Reich PB, Sack L, Villar R, Wang H, Wilf P. 2017. Global climatic drivers of leaf size. Science 357, 917-921. pdf  Supplementary Materials

  • Recommendation in Nature. pdf

Zhang Y-J, Sack L, Cao K-F. 2017, Wei X-M, Li N. 2017. Speed versus endurance tradeoff in plants: leaves with higher photosynthetic rates show stronger seasonal declines. Scientific Reports 7, 42085. pdf  Supplementary Information


Anderegg WRL, Klein T, Bartlett M, Sack L, Pellegrini A, Choat B, Jansen S. 2016. Meta-analysis reveals that hydraulic traits explain cross-species patterns of drought-induced tree mortality across the globe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 113, 5024-5029. pdf

  • Recommendation by Bernhard Schmid and Michael O’Brien, 2016. Faculty of 1000. pdf

Bartlett MK, Klein T, Jansen S, Choat B, Sack L. 2016. The correlations and sequence of plant stomatal, hydraulic, and wilting responses to drought. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 113, 13098-13103. pdf   Supporting Information

  • Commentary by Alastair Brown. 2016. Plant physiology: responses to drought. Nature Climate Change 6, 1060. pdf

Bartlett MK, Zhang Y, Yang J, Kriedler N*, Sun S-W, Lin L, Hu Y-H, Cao K-F, Sack L. 2016. Drought tolerance as a driver of tropical forest assembly: resolving spatial signatures for multiple processes. Ecology 97, 503-514. pdf   Supporting Information

Chu C, Bartlett M, Wang Y, He F, Weiner J, Chave J, Sack L. 2016. Does climate directly influence NPP globally? Global Change Biology 22, 12-24. pdf   Supporting Information

Inman-Narahari F, Ostertag R, Hubbell S, Giardina C, Cordell S, Sack L. 2016. Density-dependent seedling mortality varies with light availability and species abundance in wet and dry Hawaiian forests. Journal of Ecology 104, 773-780. pdf  Supporting Information

Maréchaux I, Bartlett MK, Gaucher P, Sack L, Chave J. 2016. Causes of variation in leaf-level drought tolerance within an Amazonian forest. Journal of Plant Hydraulics. pdf    Supplemental Data

McKown AD, Akamine ME, Sack L. 2016. Trait convergence and diversification arising from a complex evolutionary history in Hawaiian species of Scaevola. Oecologia 181, 1083-1100. pdf  Supporting Information

Méndez-Alonzo R, López-Portillo J, Moctezuma C, Bartlett MK, Sack L. 2016. Osmotic and hydraulic adjustment of mangrove saplings to extreme salinity. Tree Physiology, 36, 1562-1572. pdf  Supplementary Data

Sack L, Ball MC, Brodersen C, Davis SD, Des Marais DL, Donovan LA, Givnish TJ, Hacke UG, Huxman T, Jansen S, Jacobsen AL, Johnson D, Koch GW, Maurel C, McCulloh K, McDowell NG, McElrone A, Meinzer FC, Melcher PJ, North G, Pellegrini M, Pockman WT, Pratt RB, Sala A, Santiago LS, Savage JA, Scoffoni C, Sevanto S, Sperry J, Tyerman SD, Way D, Holbrook NM. 2016. Plant hydraulics as a hub integrating plant and ecosystem function. Plant, Cell & Environment 39, 2085-2094. pdf

Sack L, Buckley TN. 2016. The developmental basis of stomatal density and flux. Plant Physiology 171, 2358-2363. pdf  Supplemental Data

Sack L, Buckley TN, Scoffoni C. 2016. Why are leaves hydraulically vulnerable? Journal of Experimental Botany 67, 4917-4949. pdf

  • Comment by Jonathan Ingram. 2016. Leaf hydraulic conductance shifts our understanding of plant water transport. Society of Experimental Biology News. link pdf

Scoffoni C, Chatelet DS, Pasquet-Kok J, Rawls M*, Donoghue MJ, Edwards EJ, Sack L. 2016. Hydraulic basis for the evolution of photosynthetic productivity. Nature Plants 16072. pdf  Supplementary Information


Anderson-Teixeira KJ, Davies SJ, Bennett AC, Gonzalez-Akrea EB, Muller-Landau HC, Wright SJ, Abu Salim K, Almeyda Zambrano AM, Alonso A, Baltzer JL, Basset Y, Bourg NA, Broadbent EN, Brockelman WY Bunyavejchewin S, Burslem DFRP, Butt N, Cao M, Cardenas D, Chuyong GB, Clay K, Cordell S, Dattaraja HS, Deng X, Detto M, Du X, Duque A, Erikson DL, Ewango CEN, Fischer GA, Fletcher C, Foster RB, Giardina CP, Gilbert GS, Gunatilleke N, Gunatilleke S, Hao Z, Hargrove WW, Hart TB Hau, BCH, He F, Hoffman FM, Howe RW, Hubbell SP, Inman-Narahari FM, Jansen PA, Jiang M, Johnson DJ, Kanzaki M, Kassim AR, Kenfack D, Kibet S, Kinnaird MF, Korte L, Kral K, Kumar J, Larson AJ, Li Y, Li X, Liu S, Lum SKY, Lutz JA, Ma K, Maddalena DM, Makana J-R, Malhi Y, Marthews T, Mat Serudin R, McMahon SM, McShea WJ, Memiaghe HR, Mi X, Mizono T, Morecroft M, Myers JA, Novotny V, de Oliveira AA, Ong PS, Orwig DA, Ostertag R, den Ouden J, Parker GG, Phillips RP, Sack L, Sainge MN, Sang W, Sri Ngernyuang K, Sukumar R, Sun, I-F, Sungpalee W, Suresh HS, Tan S, Thomas SC, Thomas DW, Thompson J, Turner BL, Uriarte M, Valencia R, Vallejo MI, Vicentini A, Vrska T, Wang X, Wang X, Weiblen G, Wolf A, Xu H, Yap S, Zimmerman J. 2015. CTFS-ForestGeo: a worldwide network monitoring forests in an era of global change. Global Change Biology, 21, 528-549. pdf   Supporting Information

Buckley TN, John GP, Scoffoni C, Sack L. 2015. How does leaf anatomy influence water transport outside the xylem? Plant Physiology 168, 1616-1635. pdf

  • Commentary by Timothy J. Brodribb. 2015. Bringing anatomy back into the equation. Plant Physiology 168, 1461. pdf

Caringella MA, Bongers FJ, Sack L. 2015. Leaf hydraulic conductance varies with vein anatomy across Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type and leaf vein mutants. Plant, Cell & Environment 38, 2735-2746. pdf   Supporting Information

Grubb PJ, Marañón T, Pugnaire FI, Sack L. 2015. Relationships between specific leaf area and leaf composition in succulent and non-succulent species of contrasting semi-desert communities in south-eastern Spain. Journal of Arid Environments 118, 69-83. pdf   Supporting Information

Maréchaux I, Bartlett M, Sack L, Baraloto C, Engel J, Joetzjer E, Chave J. 2015. Drought tolerance as predicted by leaf water potential at turgor loss point varies strongly across species within an Amazonian forest. Functional Ecology 29, 1268-1277. pdf    Supporting Information

Merkhofer L, Wilf P, Haas MT, Kooyman RM, Sack L, Scoffoni C, Cuneo NR. 2015. Resolving Australian analogs for an Eocene Patagonian paleorainforest using leaf size and floristics. American Journal of Botany 102, 1160-1173. pdf   Supporting Information

Poorter H, Jagodziński A, Ruíz-Peinado R, Kuyah S, Luo Y, Oleksyn J, Usoltsev V, Buckley T, Reich PB, Sack L. 2015 How does biomass allocation change with size and differ among species? An analysis for 1200 plant species from five continents. New Phytologist 208, 736-749. pdf   Supporting Information

Sack L, Scoffoni C, Johnson DM, Buckley TN, Brodribb TJ. 2015. The anatomical determinants of leaf hydraulic function. in Functional and Ecological Xylem Anatomy, pp. 255-271. ed. UG Hacke. Springer, New York. pdf

Scoffoni C, Kunkle J, Pasquet-Kok J, Vuong C*, Patel A*, Montgomery R, Givnish TJ, Sack L. 2015. Light-induced plasticity in leaf hydraulics, venation, anatomy and gas exchange in ecologically diverse Hawaiian lobeliads. New Phytologist 207, 43-58. pdf Supporting Information

Scoffoni C, Sack L. 2015. Are leaves “freewheelin'”? Testing for a Wheeler-type effect in leaf xylem hydraulic decline. Plant, Cell & Environment 38, 534-543. pdf  Supporting Information

Zhang Y-J, Cao K-F, Sack L, Li N, Wei X-M, Goldstein G. 2015. Extending the generality of leaf economic design principles in the cycads, an ancient lineage. New Phytologist 206, 817-829. pdf  Supporting Information


Bartlett M, Zhang Y, Kreidler N*, Sun S, Ardy R*, Cao K-F, Sack L. 2014. Global analysis of plasticity in turgor loss point, a key drought tolerance trait. Ecology Letters 12, 1580-1590. pdf  Supporting Information

Cavaleri MA, Ostertag R, Cordell S, Sack L. 2014. Native trees show conservative water use relative to invasive: results from a removal experiment in a Hawaiian wet forest. Conservation Physiology 2, cou016. pdf

Creese C, Oberbauer S, Rundel P, Sack L. 2014. Are fern stomatal responses to different stimuli coordinated? Testing responses to light, vapor pressure deficit and CO2 for diverse species grown under contrasting irradiances. New Phytologist 204, 92-104. pdf   Supporting Information

Edwards E, Chatelet D, Garrison L, Sack L, Donoghue MJ. 2014. Leaf lifespan and the leaf economic spectrum in the context of whole plant architecture. Journal of Ecology 102, 328-336. pdf

Granda E, Scoffoni C, Rubio-Casal AE, Sack L, Valladares F. 2014. Leaf and stem physiological responses to summer and winter extremes of woody species across temperate ecosystems. Oikos 123, 1281-1290. pdf   Appendix

  • Editor’s Choice, Oikos. link

Inman-Narahari F, Ostertag R, Asner GP, Cordell S, Hubbell SP, Sack L. 2014. Trade-offs in seedling growth and survival within and across tropical forest microhabitats. Ecology and Evolution, doi: 10.1002/ece3.1196. pdf   Supporting Information

Moles AT, Perkins SE, Laffan SW, Flores-Moreno H, Awasthy M, Tindall ML, Sack L, Pitman A, Kattge J, Aarssen LW, Anand M, Bahn M, and 36 others. 2014. Which is a better predictor of plant traits: temperature or precipitation? Journal of Vegetation Science 25, 1167-1180. pdf

Ostertag R, Inman-Narahari F, Cordell S, Giardina CP, Sack L. 2014. Forest structure in low-diversity tropical forests: a study of Hawaiian wet and dry forests. PLoS ONE 9: e103268. pdf

Pivovaroff AL, Santiago LS, Sack L. 2014. Coordination of stem and leaf hydraulic conductance in southern California shrubs: a test of the hydraulic segmentation hypothesis. New Phytologist 203: 842-850. pdf

Pivovaroff A*, Sharifi R, Scoffoni C, Sack L, Rundel P. 2014. Making the best of the worst of times: traits underlying the combined shade and drought tolerance of Ruscus aculeatus and R. microglossum (Asparagaceae). Functional Plant Biology 41, 11-24. pdf

Sack L, Caringella M, Scoffoni C, Mason C, Rawls M*, Markesteijn L, Poorter L. 2014. Leaf vein length per unit area is not intrinsically dependent on image magnification: avoiding measurement artifacts for accuracy and precision. Plant Physiology 166, 829-838. pdf   Supplemental Data

Sack L, Scoffoni C, John GP, Poorter H, Mason CM, Mendez-Alonzo R, Donovan LA. 2014. Leaf mass per area is independent of vein length per area: avoiding pitfalls when modeling phenotypic integration (reply to Blonder, Violle, Bentley and Enquist, 2014). Journal of Experimental Botany 65, 5115-5123. pdf

Scoffoni C, Vuong C*, Diep S*, Cochard H, Sack L. 2014. Leaf shrinkage with dehydration: coordination with hydraulic vulnerability and drought tolerance. Plant Physiology 164, 1772-1788. pdf   Supplemental Data


Chatelet DS, Clement WL, Sack L, Donoghue MJ, Edwards EJ. 2013. The evolution of photosynthetic anatomy in Viburnum (Adoxaceae). International Journal of Plant Sciences 174, 1277-1291. pdf   Supplements

Cooke SJ, Sack L, Franklin CE, Farrell AP, Beardall J, Wikelski M, Chown SL. 2013. What is conservation physiology? perspectives on an increasingly integrated and essential science. Conservation Physiology 1, 1. pdf

Flexas J, Scoffoni C, Gago J, Sack L. 2013. Leaf mesophyll conductance and leaf hydraulic conductance: an introduction to their measurement and coordination. Journal of Experimental Botany 64: 3965-3981. pdf   Supplementary Data

Funk JL, Glenwinkel LA*, Sack L. 2013. Differential allocation to photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic nitrogen fractions among native and invasive species. PLoS ONE 8, e64502. pdf

Hao G, Wang A-Y, Sack L, Goldstein G, Cao K-F. 2013. Is hemiepiphytism an adaptation to high irradiance? Testing seedling responses to light levels and drought in hemiepiphytic and non-hemiepiphytic Ficus. Physiologia Plantarum 148, 74-86. pdf

Inman-Narahari F, Ostertag R, Cordell S, Giardina CP, Nelson-Kaula K*, Sack L. 2013. Seedling recruitment factors in low diversity Hawaiian wet forest: towards global comparisons among tropical forests. Ecosphere 4, 24. pdf

John GP, Scoffoni C, Sack L. 2013. Allometry of cells and tissues within leaves. American Journal of Botany 100: 1936-1948. pdf   Supplementary Data

Li, S, Zhang Y-J, Sack L, Scoffoni C, Ishida A, Chen Y-J, Cao K-F. 2013. The heterogeneity and spatial patterning of structure and physiology across the leaf surface in giant leaves of Alocasia macrorriza. PLoS ONE 8, e66016. pdf

Locke AM, Sack L, Bernacchi CJ, Ort DR. 2013. Soybean leaf hydraulic conductance does not acclimate to growth at elevated [CO2] or temperature in growth chambers or in the field. Annals of Botany 112: 911-918. pdf    Supplementary Data

Mendez-Alonzo R, Ewers F, Sack L. 2013. Ecological variation in leaf biomechanics and its scaling with tissue structure across three mediterranean-climate plant communities. Functional Ecology 27, 544-554. pdf   Supporting Information

Pérez-Harguindeguy N, Díaz S, Garnier E, Lavorel S, Poorter H, Jaureguiberry P, Bret-Harte MS, Cornwell WK, Craine JM, Gurvich DE, Urcelay C, Veneklaas EJ, Reich PB, Poorter L, Wright IJ, Ray P, Enrico L, Pausas JG, de Vos AC, Buchmann N, Funes G, Quétier F, Hodgson JG, Thompson K, Morgan HD, ter Steege H, van der Heijden MGA, Sack L, Blonder B, Poschlod P, Vaieretti MV, Conti G, Stager AC, Aquino S, Cornelissen JHC. 2013. New handbook for standardised measurement of plant functional traits worldwide. Australian Journal of Botany 61, 167-234. pdf   Supplementary Material

Sack L. 2013. Holding a leaf up to the light. Review of ‘The Life of a Leaf‘ by S. Vogel. BioScience 63, 981-982. pdf

Sack L, Scoffoni C. 2013. Tansley Review: Leaf venation: structure, function, development, evolution, ecology and applications in past, present and future. New Phytologist 198, 983-1000. pdf   Supporting Information

Sack L, Scoffoni C, John GP, Poorter H, Mason CM, Mendez-Alonzo R, Donovan LA. 2013. How do leaf veins influence the worldwide leaf economic spectrum? Review and synthesis. Journal of Experimental Botany 64: 4053-4080. pdf   Supplementary Data


Bartlett M, Scoffoni C, Sack L. 2012. The determinants of leaf turgor loss point and prediction of drought tolerance of species and biomes: a global meta-analysis. Ecology Letters 15, 393-405. pdf   Supporting Information

Bartlett M, Scoffoni C, Ardy R*, Zhang Y, Sun S, Cao K, Sack L. 2012. Rapid determination of comparative drought tolerance traits: using an osmometer to predict turgor loss point. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 3, 880-888. pdf   Supporting Information

Guyot G, Scoffoni C, Sack L. 2012. Combined impacts of irradiance and dehydration on leaf hydraulic conductance: insights into vulnerability and stomatal control. Plant, Cell & Environment 35, 857-871. pdf

Melcher PJ, Holbrook NM, Burns MJ, Zwieniecki MA, Cobb AR, Brodribb TJ, Choat B, Sack L. 2012. Measurement of stem xylem hydraulic conductivity in the laboratory and field. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 3, 685-694. pdf   Supporting Information

Osborne CP, Sack L. 2012. Evolution of C4 plants: a new hypothesis for an interaction of CO2 and water relations mediated by plant hydraulics. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 367, 583-600. pdf   Data Supplement

Poorter H, Sack L. 2012. Pitfalls and possibilities in the analysis of biomass allocation patterns in plants. Frontiers in Plant Science 3, 259. pdf   Supplementary Material

Sack L, Scoffoni C. 2012. Measurement of leaf hydraulic conductance and stomatal conductance and their responses to irradiance and dehydration using the evaporative flux method (EFM). Journal of Visualized Experiments. pdf   Movie

Sack L, Scoffoni C, McKown AD, Frole K*, Rawls M*, Havran JC, Tran H*, Tran T*. 2012. Developmentally based scaling of leaf venation architecture explains global ecological patterns. Nature Communications 3: 837. pdf   Supporting Information

Schmerler S*, Clement WL, Beaulieu JM, Chatelet D, Sack L, Donoghue MJ, Edwards EJ. 2012. Evolution of leaf form correlates with tropical-temperate transitions in Viburnum (Adoxaceae). Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 279, 3905-3913. pdf   Data Supplement

Scoffoni C, McKown A, Rawls M*, Sack L. 2012. Dynamics of leaf hydraulic conductance with water status: quantification and analysis of species differences under steady-state. Journal of Experimental Botany 63, 643-658. pdf   Supplementary Data

Sommerville KE, Sack L, Ball MC. 2012. Hydraulic conductance of Acacia phyllodes (leaves) is driven by primary nerve (vein) conductance and density. Plant, Cell & Environment 35, 158-168. pdf   Supporting Information


Buckley TN, Sack L, Gilbert ME. 2011. The role of bundle sheath extensions and life form in stomatal responses to leaf water status. Plant Physiology 156, 962-973. pdf   Supplemental Data

Choat B, Medek DE, Stuart SA, Pasquet-Kok J, Egerton JJG, Salari H, Sack L, Ball MC. 2011. Xylem traits mediate a trade-off between resistance to freeze/thaw-induced embolism and photosynthetic capacity in over-wintering evergreens. New Phytologist 191, 996-1005. pdf

Creese C, Lee A*, Sack L. 2011. Drivers of morphological diversity and distribution in the Hawaiian fern flora: trait associations with size, growth form and environment. American Journal of Botany 98, 956-966. pdf   Supplementary Data

Gaoue O, Sack L, Ticktin T. 2011. Human impacts on leaf economics in heterogeneous landscapes: the effect of harvesting non-timber forest products from African mahogany across habitats and climates. Journal of Applied Ecology 48, 844-852. pdf   Supporting Information

Hao G-Y, Goldstein G, Sack L, Holbrook NM, Liu Z-H, Wang A-Y, Harrison RD, Su Z-H, Cao K-F. 2011. Ecology of hemi-epiphytism in fig species is based on evolutionary correlation of hydraulics and carbon economy. Ecology 92, 2117-2130. pdf   Appendices online

Kattge J, Díaz S, Lavorel S, Prentice IC, Leadley P, Bönisch G, Garnier E, Westoby M, Reich PB, Wright IJ, Cornelissen JHC, Violle C, Harrison SP, van Bodegom PM, Reichstein M, Enquist BJ, Soudzilovskaia NA, Ackerly DD, Anand M, Atkin O, Bahn M, Baker TR, Baldocchi D, Bekker R, Blanco CC, Blonder B, Bond W, Bradstock R, Bunker DE, Casanoves F, Cavender-Bares J, Chambers JQ, Chapin FS III, Chave J, Coomes D, Cornwell WK, Craine JM, Dobrin BH, Duarte L, Durka W, Elser J, Esser G, Estiarte M, Fagan WF, Fang J, Fernández-Méndez F, Fidelis A, Finegan B, Flores O, Ford H, Frank D, Freschet GT, Fyllas NM, Gallagher R, Green WA, Gutierrez AG, Hickler T, Higgins S, Hodgson JG, Jalili A, Jansen J, Joly C, Kerkhoff AJ, Kirkup D, Kitajima K, Kleyer M, Klotz S, Knops JMH, Kramer K, Kühn I, Kurokawa H, Laughlin D, Lee TD, Leishman M, Lens F, Lenz T, Lewis SL, Lloyd J, Llusià J, Louault F, Ma S, Mahecha MD, Manning P, Massad T, Medlyn B, Messier J, Moles A, Müller SC, Nadrowski K, Naeem S, Niinemets Ü, Nöllert S, Nüske A, Ogaya R, Oleksyn J, Onipchenko VG, Onoda Y, Ordoñez J, Overbeck G, Ozinga W, Patiño S, Paula S, Pausas JG, Peñuelas J, Phillips OL, Pillar V, Poorter H, Poorter L, Poschlod P, Prinzing A, Proulx R, Rammig A, Reinsch S, Reu B, Sack L, Salgado-Negret B, Sardans J, Shiodera S, Shipley B, Siefert A, Sosinski E, Sousssana J-F, Swaine E, Swenson N, Thompson K, Thornton P, Waldram M, Weiher E, White M, Wright SJ, Yguel B, Zaehle S, Zanne AE, Wirth C. 2011. TRY: a global database of plant traits. Global Change Biology 17, 2905-2935. pdf   Supporting Information

  • Recommendation by Kirk Moloney, 2012, Faculty of 1000. pdf

Markesteijn L, Poorter L, Paz H, Bongers F, Sack L. 2011. Hydraulics and life-history of tropical dry forest tree species: coordination of species’ drought and shade tolerance. New Phytologist 191, 480-495. pdf

Markesteijn L, Poorter L, Paz H, Sack L, Bongers F. 2011. Ecological differentiation in xylem cavitation resistance is associated with stem and leaf structural traits. Plant, Cell & Environment 34, 137-148. pdf

Scoffoni C, Rawls M*, McKown A, Cochard H, Sack L. 2011. Decline of leaf hydraulic conductance with dehydration: relationship to leaf size and venation architecture. Plant Physiology 156, 832-843. pdf   Supplemental Data

  • Recommendation by Joseph Craine, 2011, Faculty of 1000. pdf

Sellin A, Sack L, Õunapuu E, Karusion A. 2011. Impact of light quality on leaf and shoot hydraulic properties: a case study in silver birch (Betula pendula). Plant, Cell & Environment 34, 1079-1087. pdf

Waite M, Sack L. 2011. Does global stoichiometric theory apply to bryophytes? Tests across an elevation × soil age ecosystem matrix on Mauna Loa, Hawaii. Journal of Ecology 99, 122-134. pdf   Supporting Information

Waite M, Sack L. 2011. Shifts in bryophyte carbon isotope ratio across an elevation × soil age matrix on Mauna Loa, Hawaii: do bryophytes behave like vascular plants? Oecologia 166, 11-22. pdf   SupplementaryMaterial


Brodribb TJ, Feild TS, Sack L. 2010. Viewing leaf structure and evolution from a hydraulic perspective. Functional Plant Biology 37: 488-498. pdf

Cavaleri MA, Sack L. 2010. Comparative water use of native and invasive plants at multiple scales: a global meta-analysis. Ecology 91: 2705-2715. pdf   Appendices online

  • Recommendation by Mark Lonsdale and Hazel Ruth Parry, 2010, Faculty of 1000. pdf

Hao G-Y, Sack L, Wang A-Y, Cao K-F, Goldstein G. 2010. Differentiation of leaf water flux and drought tolerance traits in hemiepiphytic and non-hemiepiphytic Ficus tree species. Functional Ecology 24: 731-740. pdf   Supporting Information

Inman-Narahari F, Giardina C, Ostertag R, Cordell S, Sack L. 2010. Digital data collection in forest dynamics plots. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 1: 274-279. pdf   Supporting Information

McKown AD, Cochard H, Sack L. 2010. Decoding leaf hydraulics with a spatially explicit model: principles of venation architecture and implications for its evolution. American Naturalist 175: 447-460. pdf   Appendix

  • Commentary by David J. Beerling and Peter J. Franks. 2010. News & Views: The hidden cost of transpiration. Nature 464, 495-496. pdf

Pasquet-Kok J, Creese C, Sack L. 2010. Turning over a new “leaf”: multiple functional significances of leaves versus phyllodes in Hawaiian Acacia koa. Plant, Cell & Environment 33, 2084-2100. pdf   Supporting Information

Sack L, Cornwell WK, Santiago LS, Barbour MM, Choat B, Evans JR, Munns R, Nicotra A. 2010. A unique web resource for physiology, ecology and the environmental sciences: PrometheusWiki. Functional Plant Biology 387: 687-693. pdf   PrometheusWiki Website

  • Commentary by Rana Munns. 2010. Editorial: New ventures in scientific publication. Functional Plant Biology 37, 687-693. pdf

Waite M, Sack L. 2010. How does moss photosynthesis relate to leaf and canopy structure? Trait relationships for ten Hawaiian species of contrasting light habitats. New Phytologist 185: 156-172. pdf   Supplementary Material

  • Commentary by Michael Proctor. 2010. Trait correlations in bryophytes: exploring an alternative world. New Phytologist 185, 1-3. pdf


Coomes DA, Sack L. 2009. Response to “Comment on Coomes et al. 2008, ‘Scaling of xylem vessels and veins within the leaves of oak species’ by CA Price and BJ Enquist”. Biology Letters. pdf

Dunbar-Co S, Sporck MJ, Sack L. 2009. Leaf trait diversification and design in seven rare taxa of the Hawaiian Plantago radiation. International Journal of Plant Sciences 170: 61-75. pdf

Kagawa AK, Sack L, Duarte K, James S. 2009. Hawaiian native forest conserves water relative to timber plantation: species and stand traits influence water use. Ecological Applications 19: 1429-1443. pdf


Arcand N, Kagawa AK, Sack L, Giambelluca TW. 2008. Scaling of frond form in Hawaiian tree fern Cibotium glaucum: compliance with global trends, and application for field estimation. Biotropica 40, 686-691. pdf   Supporting Material

Coomes DA, Heathcote S*, Godfrey ER*, Shepherd JJ*, Sack L. 2008. Scaling of xylem vessels and veins within the leaves of oak species. Biology Letters 4, 302-306. pdf Supplementary Material

Hoof J, Sack L, Webb DT, Nilsen ET. 2008. Contrasting structure and function of pubescent and glabrous varieties of Hawaiian Metrosideros polymorpha at high elevation. Biotropica 40, 113-118. pdf

Pratt RB, Jacobsen AL, North GB, Sack L, Schenk HJ. 2008. Plant hydraulics: new discoveries in the pipeline. Meeting Report. New Phytologist 179, 590-593. pdf

Quero JL, Villar R, Marañón T, Zamora R, Vega D, Sack L. 2008. Relating leaf photosynthetic rate to whole plant growth: drought and shade effects on seedlings of four Quercus species. Functional Plant Biology 35,725-737. pdf   Supplementary Material

Sack L, Dietrich EM*, Streeter CM*, Sánchez-Gómez D, Holbrook NM. 2008. Leaf palmate venation and vascular redundancy confer tolerance of hydraulic disruption. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 105, 1567-1572. pdf   Supporting Information Online

  • Recommendation by Evan DeLucia, 2008, Faculty of 1000. pdf

Scoffoni C, Pou A, Aasamaa K, Sack L. 2008. The rapid light response of leaf hydraulic conductance: new evidence from two experimental methods. Plant, Cell & Environment 13, 1803-1812. pdf


Cavender-Bares J, Sack L, Savage J. 2007. Atmospheric and soil drought reduce nocturnal conductance in live oaks. Tree Physiology 27, 611-620. pdf

Choat B, Sack L, Holbrook NM. 2007. Diversity of hydraulic traits in nine Cordia species growing in tropical forests with contrasting precipitation. New Phytologist 175, 686-698. pdf

  • Recommendation by Peter Reich, 2008, Faculty of 1000. pdf

Cornwell WK, Bhaskar R, Sack L, Cordell S, Lunch C. 2007. Adjustment of structure and function of Hawaiian Metrosideros polymorpha at high versus low precipitation. Functional Ecology 21, 1063-1071. pdf

Martin RE, Asner GP, Sack L. 2007. Genetic variation in leaf pigment, optical and photosynthetic function among diverse phenotypes of Metrosideros polymorpha grown in a common garden. Oecologia 151, 387-400. pdf

Royer DL, Sack L, Wilf P, Lusk CH, Jordan GJ, Niinemets Ü, Wright IJ, Westoby M, Cariglino B, Coley PD, Cutter AD, Johnson KR, Labandeira CC, Moles AT, Palmer MB, Valladares F. 2007. Fossil leaf economics quantified: calibration, Eocene case study, and implications. Paleobiology 33, 574-589. pdf

  • Editor’s Choice, by Guy Riddihough. 2007. Science 318, 1219. pdf


Niinemets Ü, Sack L. 2006. Structural determinants of leaf light harvesting capacity and photosynthetic potentials. Progress in Botany, Vol 67. Springer Verlag, Berlin, 385-419. pdf

Sack L, Frole K*. 2006. Leaf structural diversity is related to hydraulic capacity in tropical rainforest trees. Ecology 87, 483-491. pdf   Appendices online

Sack L, Holbrook NM. 2006. Leaf hydraulics. Annual Review of Plant Biology 57, 361-381. pdf

Sack L, Melcher PJ, Liu WH*, Middleton E*, Pardee T*. 2006. How strong is intra-canopy leaf plasticity in temperate deciduous trees? American Journal of Botany 93, 829-839. pdf


Nakahashi C*, Frole K*, Sack L*. 2005. Bacterial leaf nodule symbiosis in Ardisia (Myrsinaceae): does it contribute to seedling growth capacity? Plant Biology 7, 495-500. pdf

Orians CM, Smith SDP*, Sack L. 2005. How are leaves plumbed inside a branch? Differences in leaf-to-leaf hydraulic sectoriality among six temperate tree species. Journal of Experimental Botany 56, 2267-2273. pdf

Sack L, Tyree MT, Holbrook NM. 2005. Leaf hydraulic architecture correlates with regeneration irradiance in tropical rainforest trees. New Phytologist 167, 403-413. pdf

Sack L,Tyree MT. 2005. Leaf hydraulics and its implications in plant structure and function. In Vascular Transport in Plants. eds NM Holbrook and MA Zwieniecki. Elsevier/Academic Press, Oxford, 93-114. pdf

Tyree MT, Nardini A, Salleo S, Sack L, El Omari B. 2005. The dependence of leaf hydraulic conductance on irradiance during HPFM measurements: any role for stomatal response? Journal of Experimental Botany 56, 737-744. pdf


Angeles G, Bond B, Boyer JS, Brodribb T, Brooks JR, Burns MJ, Cavender-Bares J, Clearwater M, Cochard H, Comstock J, Davis SD, Domec J-C, Donovan L, Ewers F, Gartner B, Hacke U, Hinckley T, Holbrook NM, Jones HG, Kavanagh K, Law B, López-Portillo J, Lovisolo C, Martin T, Martínez-Vilalta J, Mayr S, Meinzer FC, Melcher P, Mencuccini M, Mulkey S, Nardini A, Neufeld HS, Passioura J, Pockman WT, Pratt RB, Rambal S, Richter H, Sack L, Salleo S, Schubert A, Schulte P, Sparks JP, Sperry J, Teskey R, Tyree M. 2004. Letter: The cohesion-tension theory. New Phytologist 163, 451-452. pdf

Sack L. 2004. Responses of temperate woody seedlings to shade and drought: do trade-offs limit potential niche differentiation? Oikos 107, 110-127. pdf

Sack L, Streeter CM*, Holbrook NM. 2004. Hydraulic analysis of water flow through leaves of sugar maple and red oak. Plant Physiology 134, 1824-1833. pdf


Sack L, Cowan PD*, Holbrook NM. 2003. The major veins of mesomorphic leaves revisited: testing for conductive overload in Acer saccharum (Aceraceae) and Quercus rubra (Fagaceae). American Journal of Botany 90: 32-39. pdf

Sack L, Cowan PD*, Jaikumar NJ*, Holbrook NM. 2003. The ‘hydrology’ of leaves: coordination of structure and function in temperate woody species. Plant, Cell & Environment 26, 1343-1356. pdf

Sack L, Dechmann D. 2003. Design of paradise. Review of ‘A Magic Web’ by EG Leigh and C Ziegler. Nature 424, 132. pdf

Sack L, Grubb, PJ. 2003. Crossovers in seedling relative growth rates between low and high irradiance: analyses and ecological potential. Functional Ecology 17, 281-287. pdf

Sack L, Grubb PJ, Marañón T. 2003. The functional morphology of juvenile plants tolerant of strong summer drought in shaded forest understories in southern Spain. Plant Ecology 168, 139-163. pdf


Sack L, Grubb PJ. 2002. The combined impacts of deep shade and drought on the growth and biomass allocation of shade tolerant woody seedlings. Oecologia 131: 175-185. pdf

Sack L, Marañón T, Grubb, PJ. 2002. Global allocation rules for patterns of biomass partitioning. Science 296: 1923a. pdf

Sack L, Melcher PJ, Zwieniecki MA, Holbrook NM. 2002. The hydraulic conductance of the angiosperm leaf lamina: a comparison of three measurement methods. Journal of Experimental Botany 53: 2177-2184. pdf

Zwieniecki MA, Melcher PJ, Boyce CK, Sack L, Holbrook NM. 2002. The hydraulic architecture of the leaf venation in Laurus nobilis L. Plant, Cell & Environment 25: 1445-1450. pdf


Sack L, Grubb PJ. 2001. Why do species of woody seedlings change rank in relative growth rate between low and high irradiance? Functional Ecology 15: 145-154. pdf


Sack L*, Zeyl C, Bell G, Sharbel T, Reboud X, Bernhardt T, Koelewyn H. 1994. Isolation of four new strains of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlorophyta) from soil samples. Journal of Phycology 30, 770-773. pdf


*indicates undergraduate co-authors